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The expected impacts of climate change (CC) on the water cycle lead to significant concerns regarding water security at local, regional and global scales. Climate change as demonstrated by temperature increase, sea-level rise, pollution, ocean acidification, and increase in the intensity and frequency of extreme events-such as floods, droughts, cyclones. The result is an additional stress on already stressed water resources. The IPCC technical report on climate change and water concludes that many arid regions will suffer badly from climate change. Rural poor communities as well as internally displaced people, are generally most exposed and most vulnerable to climate risks. Adapting to climate change is a pro-active, long term policies and integrated planning to address the root causes of vulnerability, and strengthens human security and sustainability.

Topics to be addressed under theme 4 are the following:

Topic 4.1: Disaster Risk Reduction against Natural Water Hazards and CC Impacts
Topic 4.2: Mainstreaming CC in Water Resources Policies and Plans
Topic 4.3: CC Impact on Water Quality, Environmental Safety and Eco-System Integrity
Topic 4.4: Adaptation to CC within the context of Water Security
Topic 4.5: Vulnerability of Groundwater Aquifers to CC.