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TS04:Supporting Sustainable Water Management in Newly Reclaimed Areas

A key challenge for the agriculture sector in Egypt is to feed its growing population in the context of increasing demand on the limited water resources and trade deficit. Moreover, in some areas, overdraft of groundwater resources has led to water quality degradation and or extensive drawdown of water levels of operational wells. This raises the question of groundwater sustainability and thus the future of irrigated agriculture in these areas.

Considering the finite character of the groundwater resources and the uncertainties regarding its lifetime, it becomes essential to enhance water use efficiency and increase water productivity within the sustainable limits of such aquifers. Farmers are the key stakeholders and their personal investments may be at risk if irrigation practices mimic those practiced in the delta region under surface irrigation water systems. Hence farmers need to be trained so as to make informed decisions on water saving techniques and the associated risks. Keeping them well informed will help create a sense for the need to better manage groundwater through more participatory and efficient approaches.

Furthermore, efficiency and financial gains associated with Irrigation Improvement Systems are considered the driving incentive for investing in such systems, especially in water scarce countries like Egypt. The aim is to decrease water losses and increase yield and water productivity. With different limitations to widespread modern systems such as old trees root distributions, high initial cost of construction of modern irrigation systems, salinity hazards, energy resources, .etc., it becomes essential to re-plan horizontal expansion program considering these limitations.

Horizontal expansion into new land in the desert has long been a key strategic target pursued by successive governments to meet the increasing food demand. Major land reclamation projects have been initiated to increase the agricultural land area. The early stage of land reclamation activities presents large opportunities for pre-assessments and investigations to steer project implementation and reduce the risks of failure.

The  session goal is to bring together a group of policy makers and experts to discuss the following:

  • Potentiality of irrigation modernization in newly reclaimed areas.
  • Future of Groundwater management (quantity and quality).
  • Role of new tools, e.g. modelling and Decision support systems in enhancing sustainability of groundwater resources.
  • Approaches to match between water availability and demand in newly reclaimed areas.

SS05: Preparatory Session for 9th World Water Fourm

The Executive Secretariat of the 9th World Water Forum that hosts the National
organizing committee of the Dakar 2021 Water Forum would organize a
special session on the Dakar Forum.

The main objective of the special session is to inform participants the state of preparedness of the form; to present the different subthemes of the priority areas;  to present the modality of contributing to the different Working Groups; probably to one or more Working Groups meeting at the sidelines of Cairo Water week 

TS08: Water Productivity as the Cornerstone of Water-Limited Food Production

In the arid and semi-arid areas of the world water limits agricultural production and the efficient use of the limited water resources becomes key in efforts aimed at improving farmers’ livelihoods. The concept of water productivity (WP) has been coined to quantify such efforts, and is defined as the ratio of crop yield (biophysical WP) or income (economic WP) to consumed water (evapotranspiration, ET).

Nowhere in the Planet is water scarcity more acute than in the Near East-North Africa (NENA) Region. But, this is also a region with a long history of managing water for food production and human development. The region’s civilization benefitted from the capacity to control water, store it and use it when the crop needs it the most (irrigation). The need to secure income through agriculture and food security make water everyday more precious. Several factors such as increased water demand, periodic droughts, and the threats of desertification and climate change, all contribute to the perception of dwindling water resources in the NENA region, and to bring water scarcity to the top of the political agenda. Therefore, improving agricultural water productivity (more outputs with less drops) becomes of paramount importance in this region.

 

The session will first explore the crop water productivity gaps that could be bridged (ex. for the basis of our food basket), then will analyze the economic water productivity in light of recent social and institutional changes (ex. issues that affect WP such as access to water and water rights, sustainability, equity, changes along the value chain, the impact of food waste on WP), and will finally explore how to inform the society on actions needed addressing the consumer and societal perceptions of the water needs for producing food and discuss the pros and cons of available indicators (ex. water footprint).

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TS09: Networks for Capacity Development and Knowledge Sharing: Tools to Cope with Water Scarcity (NBCNC)

Effective knowledge sharing programmes and strategies are crucial to the long-term capacity-building of learners, practitioners and professionals in order to ensure the sustainability of individuals, teams and communities. In a current world full of challenges facing the water sectors worldwide including increasing world Population growth, global water scarcity, water and food security, climate change impacts, new knowledge production and effective capacity development of all professionals involved are keys to find innovative and practical solutions. The importance of developing productive capacity for solving alarming water problems, contributing to economic growth and poverty reduction has been recognized by most developing countries, with an interest in sustainable growth and contribution to the implementation of SDG’s. When focusing on knowledge sharing and joint collaborative programmes, networks and strong partnerships have proven to be effective especially in transboundary basins and regions of scarce resources. The need to cope with water scarcity and to find innovative solutions sets out to mobilize action and further dialogue, cooperation and partnership at all levels in order to help achieve internationally agreed water-related goals and targets, including those contained in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

This session aims at showing the role of knowledge networks and institutions working in knowledge production and collaborative research activities in contributing to solving water scarcity related problems with focus on regional dimensions, engagement of all stakeholders and use of collaborative tools for better technical cooperation with case studies from the Nile basin and other regions.  The session is expected to provide an opportunity to learn about multidisciplinary approaches and joint programmes of knowledge sharing and partnerships supporting capacity development. Discussions and recommendations on effective tools for collaborative sustainable capacity development programmes will be discussed.

TS11:Cooperation projects of Egyptian- Dutch Advisory Panel on Water Management

SS12 & SS16: Meeting for the Expert Network for Arab Water Under Occupation ( LAS)

TS13:Challenges and opportunities of Solar Power Irrigation System in the Near East and North Africa Region

The proposed session aims to discuss the future of solar power irrigation system in Near East and North Africa and more emphasis in Egypt and Tunisia. The session will mainly present opportunities and challenges related to using solar energy for irrigation within a holistic more sustainable management of scarce water resources in the region.

The session will highlight and review current practices, identify strengths and weaknesses that helps in developing future directions on SPIS in Egypt and Tunisia. In mitigating the risks associated with the expansion of groundwater irrigation resulting from the availability of affordable, through subsidies and other governmental incentives, renewable energy source, data availability and the analytical capacity of concerned institutions become a central element of groundwater management. Real-time data availability and analysis provide water resources managers and decision makers an effective tool for timely control of water abstractions. Local experiences on the development, installation and operation of such monitoring tools will be presented and discussed in the session.

 

Moreover, the concept of solar powered irrigation systems need to be discussed within the overall socio-economic and political setting, where, the national policies on renewable energy, financial and economic incentives or disincentives as well as the engagement of the private sector become pivotal in the future direction and development of solar energy use for agriculture. Experiences from other regions have demonstrated increased productivity and positive impacts on small-scale farmers’ income. Nevertheless, careful analysis of the enabling environments of success cased will provide lessons for the region to learn from.

During the session, proposals that can support countries in the region identifying and streamlining policies, governance, and best practices in agriculture water management will be discussed. SPIS will not be promoted as technology-driven activity, within an overall enabling policy environment that consider locally-adaptable business models and the capacity of stakeholders, farmers, extension workers and water management professionals, among others.

TS14:Innovative Solutions to Improve Agricultural Production in Marginal Environments

The session will discuss the new innovative technologies /solutions and approaches that are used to improve agricultural production while sustaining natural resources in marginal environments particularly in countries that face water scarcity like the United Arab Emirates.

 

ICBA and Partners will present several case studies on the research achievements that has been done to improve allocation of water to different crops and better estimates of crop water requirements using lysimeters and sensors techniques which can help in saving groundwater resources and reduce over pumping, integrated farming system that uses brine water generated from RO desalinated plants in aquaculture and for irrigating halophytes like Salicornia which can reduce the environmental impact of the brine (zero discharge) and increase agricultural production, other case studies on using remote sensing and sensors to have a better estimates of crop water use and agricultural productivity will also be presented.

TS15: Non-Conventional Water Resources

Due to exponential increase in population and so the ambitious development plans in many countries in the region, the available fresh water resources are not satisfying the water demands. The main strategic choice to fulfil the gap between water resources availability and water demand is the use of the non-conventional water resources. Treated drainage water, rainfall harvesting and, desalination of seawater and brackish water are examples of such non-conventional water resources. The use of non-conventional water is on the top of research priorities of the NWRC to maximize the efficiency of such resources.

NWRC will present success stories in this research area including the use of wetland and natural materials for drainage water treatment and, mitigation measures used for rainfall harvesting. Consequently, the use of desalination technology in sea water will be presented.

 

TS17:Count and account for scarce water: Build a sustainable water future

The Arab and Mediterranean regions are challenged by water scarcity and climate change. Large parts of Africa suffer from long dry periods and/or extreme rainfalls. Planning for sustainable development under uncertainty is a challenge to water managers and governments. Water management has become a multi-dimensional and multi-sectoral task considering external factors such as demographic developments, geo-politics and its socio-economic consequences, changing consumption patterns, urbanization, environmental degradation and climate change. These factors along with new financial, political, scientific and technological developments require strong coordination structures with stakeholders outside the direct and classical action domains of water managers.

Drawing on the best global and national expertise, the region can develop innovative technical and business solutions. Water accounting/auditing is an instrument that can facilitate the communication between stakeholders on the feasibility of options and enhance the effectiveness of policy making and planning. With the growing need to understand trade-offs between sectors and strategies, water accounting becomes essential for planning sustainable water futures of the 2030 Agenda. Large-scale uptake of these solutions will interact with major changes in water policy and practice.

The session will raise awareness on the feasibility of using water accounting for planning, and reporting in the NENA water-scarce region and its usefulness to inform the sustainable development needs. Various countries in the NENA region started implementing ‘rapid water accounting’ as a first step in their aim to use standardized approaches but tailor them to their realities.  The session will then be able to take a closer look at the state of art developments on Water Accounting in the region while illustrating it with concrete examples from countries. The discussion should highlight the most common issues (data, tools, scaling up) and the approach to address them

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TS18: :The Role of Media in Raising Public Awareness for Better Water Use in Egypt

Egypt faces a rapid population growth while agricultural land water resources are not much available at the same rate which leads to critical water scarcity. The UN predicts that Egypt will be approaching a state of “absolute water crisis” by 2025 and that the nation is already below the United Nations’ water poverty threshold. As such, Egypt’s standing is below the level of water poverty. However, the population is depending mainly on the River Nile for drinking water, municipal water, and agricultural water. However, the painful reality is the fact that the river has been polluted by harmful chemical industrial waste, sewage leakages, municipal wastes, and dumping of dead animal carcasses, which has been causing a significant risk to humans, animals and also agricultural production. Water availability is an issue that is continuously growing in Egypt every day with the climate being expected continually gets drier and hotter over time.

To face the above-mentioned challenges, raising public awareness has become vital for better water resources use in a rational and sustainable manner.

TS19: Research and Innovation in Water

Research and innovation are very significant for water sector due to the continues necessities for improvement of the water efficiency of the irrigation and drainage network systems and likewise of the hydraulic structures.

The session will present innovated solutions to produce biogas from the aquatic weeds and water hyacinth in an efficient technique. This technique was successfully implemented in Uganda. Correspondingly, innovates to improve the efficiency and functionality of regulators on the water streams will be presented.

SS20 & SS25: Enhancing Climate Change Adaptation in the North Coast and Nile Delta Regions in Egypt Project

The session will cover the recent advances in implementing nature based techniques to adapt to the anticipated sea level rise impacts in Egypt. This will cover the work carried out by a recently completed GEF/UNDP funded project and the currently on going GCF/UNDP funded project ECCADP. The session will also touch upon the recent efforts to develop a full integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) plan for the northern coastal zones of Egypt.

TS21:Climate Induced Water Hazards drives Human Insecurity in the Eastern Nile River basin

The session will demonstrate how climate driven hazards pose risks to human security in a basin wide context. It will facilitate discussion on how key actors in fields such as water resource management, climate policy and development planning can apply the climate security lens to identify and reduce insecurities and build long-term resilience.     

TS22: Water Accounting for Enhanced Water Productivity and Drought Management

For centuries, the control and delivery of water without the appropriate institutional framework has changed states and economies across the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. In the 20th century, infrastructure development tamed key river systems and led to huge expansion in irrigation, supporting rapidly expanding populations. Despite important advances in water management, sustainable water use under changing climatic conditions is becoming an increasing challenge for the MENA region. In some countries, withdrawals per capita per annum are already twice the available resource. Egypt, for example has decreasing water availability per capita from the present 650 m3/year to about 350 m3/year in 2037 in terms of expected population growth only.

  •  On top of these challenges, droughts, and increasing climate variability change are bringing increasing stresses forcing water managers and politicians to seek even more overall water productivity and efficiency in a sustainable manner. However, in many countries it is difficult to determine the current state of water resource and the extent and quantities of water use.
  • Accurate water accounting can play an important part in water management under both normal and drought conditions. Water accounting supports the development of the strategies, and management plans vital for understanding hydrological and natural processes and for managing
    water availability. This information is critical for dialogues about water and future planning. Water accounting in the MENA region, and its use in drought management in particular, are essential steps for water sector reform and strengthening. It represents a fundamental decision support tool to strategic planning, to guide investments, and to policy and regulatory review and development for sustainable water resources management.
  • This session will introduce water accounting frameworks and techniques and their use in water resource planning and policy development under normal and drought conditions. It will showcase examples from around the world with a particular focus on the MENA region bringing insight into:
    • Water accounting applications in water manage-men
    • Water accounting and water resources plan develop-men
    • Climate change and drought management
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TS23: Vulnerability of Water Resources to Climate Change

Climate change and its impacts on water resources is a hot issue worldwide. Climate change can cause periods of unexpected floods or draughts and eventually sea level rise.

World deltas is subjected to land subsidies due to climate change. Nile delta is one of the deltas that is vulnerable to climate change. Draughts affect the availability of fresh water while floods can cause losses in lands, properties and lives. Research on climate change vulnerability is taking place over the globe for better understanding and impact mitigations.

Tools and models used to forecast the climate change and its impacts on rainfall and sea level rise will be presented considering the research conducted on the Nile delta. Innovates using friendly measures to protect Nile delta from floods due to climate change will be also presented.

TS26: Dam Break Risk Assessment

Dam failure, either earth or concrete dams, occurs due to natural disasters or man fault. Consequently, the failure causes losses of lives and, economic drawdown due to uncontrolled flooding. Research on dam failure/break is very crucial for predicting the negative impacts and accordingly for the necessary measures of mitigating such impacts. NWRC will present the large scale experiments that conducted, using the large facilities that is available in the NWRC, for studying the breach of earth dams due to overtopping or piping. Research and studies will be presented on concrete dams break and its impact downstream using numerical modeling techniques and risk management analysis.

TS27:National Water Competition for Farmers' Best Practices in Water Conservation

The session will include presentations of the winner farmers in the National Competition for Water Conservation that was held under the auspices of the Minister of Water Resources and Irrigation and in cooperation with the European Union,. The competition’s objective is to support the strategic national efforts and initiatives to protect and conserve water resources.

It also aims to encourage the positive and best practices of farmers through water user associations to conserve water in quantity and quality. The competition was open to all water user associations in all the Egyptian governorates.

TS28: Young Innovators STEM schools

Children can play a significant role in the future of water resources management, in accordance with their evolving capacities and increasing autonomy, to be engaged in the future decision-making processes. In CWW 2019, we worked alongside kids to make sure their participation in the conference and have their voices heard. The session will present the STEM school’s students innovations in the field of Water Resources conversation. 

The STEM school was founded on September 17, 2011 in the Global Village. It was established to equip the children with the skills needed to excel in the global economy. The core components of the rigorous curriculum ensure a community of STEM educated students who are problem-solvers, innovators, logical thinkers and technologically literate.

TS29: Best Graduation Projects Competition

This session is a part of the Best Graduation Projects competition that was held under the umbrella of Cairo Water Week. All graduation projects, of the academic year 2018/2019, from Governmental and Private Universities were encouraged to apply if their projects fall under the areas of the competition.
The Scientific Committee of Cairo Water Week will select the best three projects and the winners will present their work during this session

TS31: Localization of Strategies and Action Plans for Better Community Resilience (RAED)

The scope of the session is to advocate for better community resilience through localization of strategies and action plans related to water, agriculture, sustainable development , etc. as well as following to risk-based management approach. However, institutional capacity development and ensuring multi stakeholders engagement focusing on youth and women empowerment are considered key elements.

The session aims at Initiate dialogue among participants on localization of strategies, plans and resources; discuss challenges facing localization to reach better resilience and potential opportunities; highlight possible synergies between various international, regional, national strategies and policies addressing water, agriculture and climate change; emphasize on roles and responsibilities of different stakeholders (particularly civil society).

TS44: The Household Water Insecurity Experiences Scale: a simple questionnaire for generating high-resolution data on water security

Progress towards equitable and sufficient water has primarily been measured by population-level data on water availability. However, higher-resolution measures of water accessibility, adequacy, reliability, safety, and use (i.e. water insecurity) have been called for. Indeed, our inability to validly measure household water insecurity in a cross-culturally equivalent way is a significant scientific gap that has spurred calls for higher resolution data, including by the United Nations High-Level Panel on Water.

The Household Water Insecurity Experiences Scale (HWISE) Scale is a simple 12-item survey that measures universal experiences of household water insecurity across low- and middle-income countries. Its development ushers in the ability to quantify the prevalence, causes, and consequences of household water insecurity. As such, it can contribute an evidence base for clinical, public health, and policy recommendations regarding water. 

This session will briefly describe the development of the HWISE Scale, illustrate how measuring household water insecurity can help track progress towards a number of SDGs, and what implementation in 30+ countries to date has revealed. We will conclude with a brief hands-on learning lab in which participants are trained on the use and analysis of the HWISE Scale.